福彩3d和值走势图带连线专业版

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“國家如何整合本地人的習慣性土地權利,成為贊比亞經濟發展的投資目標?”

論文編號:lw201605092340067644 所屬欄目:留學生畢業論文 發布日期:2018年10月11日 論文作者:無憂論文網
1.0 Background背景
通過土地來確保窮人之間的可持續生計,土地是一種帶來歸屬感的象征,是社會認同感和權力的主要資源。它可以是我們自給自足也可以是對沖貧困的資源。在第一世界國家,土地對農村窮人來說是有價值的。這是土著民族的財富,任何政府都應該有意將財富公平地分配給其人民。另一方面,明顯的案例表明,農村貧困人口已經流離失所,以便精英在征得法律同意的情況下獲得土地。土地收購導致人們被排除在狩獵、放牧、儀式集會、木柴集會,捕魚等一般水權之外(ZLA,2004)。人們的流離失所也是所謂的土地掠奪的結果,并已航行通過前殖民時代到最近。
根據Borras和Franco(2012)的研究,“土地搶奪”是指最近的跨國商業土地交易,通常與食品,動物飼料,生物燃料,木材和礦物的生產和出口有關。土地掠奪,又稱租借,是2007-08年糧食價格危機的結果,當時土地和水資源短缺的國家被全球市場推向尋找可生產糧食的替代地區(如中國)。這導致發展中國家成為土地、水和廉價勞動力供應充足的目標。然而,人們擔心當地窮人可能失去對這一主要資源的獲取和控制(Braun和Minzen-Dick,2009)。
Sustainable livelihoods among the poor are ensured through land which is a prime resource that brings about a sense of belonging, social identity and power. A resource which provides self sufficiency and a hedge against poverty. Land is as valuable to the rural poor as technology would be in first world countries. It is the wealth of the indigenous people and should be any governments good intention to equitably distribute it among its people. On the other hand evident cases have shown that the rural poor have been displaced in order for the elite to acquire the land with the consent of the law. Land acquisitions have resulted in  people being excluded from their commonage for hunting, animal grazing, ceremonial gatherings, firewood gathering, fishing as general rights to water (ZLA, 2004). The displacement of people is also as a result of what is known as land grabbing and has sailed through pre-colonial times to recent times.
According to Borras and Franco (2012) 'land grab' refers to the recent transnational commercial land transactions commonly related to the production and export of food, animal feed, bio fuels, timber and minerals. The land grab, otherwise known as leasing is as a result of the food price crisis of 2007-08 where countries that are short on land and water resources 1have been pushed by global markets to seek alternative areas where food can be produced (eg China). This has led to developing countries being targeted where land, water and cheap labour are in abundant supply. However, there is concern for the local poor people who risk losing their access and control over this primary resource (Braun and Meinzen-Dick, 2009).
In general, third world countries are leasing land to foreign investors. In most cases, governments have the right to alienate land under the presumption that customary land is available, placing their citizens land on the global market without their consent. Hence the government are the land grabbers as investors are on the receiving end upon making their requests. This concept has resulted in majority rural landholders squatters on their own land. Land plots are being secured more easily but large tracts of land which are being used as communal land are still left for reallocation by governments. Focus of investment has been on land rich and income poor Sub Sahara Africa where values of customary land are reasonably cheap, customary tenure laws are unclear and cost of   labour is cheap (Wily, 2010) 
1.1 Research Problem 研究問題
Investment is celebrated in Zambia but rarely scrutinised in terms of costs and benefits especially where the poor local people are concerned. Focus has been on making stable economic reforms and policies to comply with the global market. In 1995 the Zambian Government, implemented a market based land reform  with the aim of stimulating investment and agricultural productivity to alleviate poverty in the country.
Table of Contents
1.0 Background 3
1.1 Research Problem 4
2. Literature Review 5
2.1 Land Tenure 5
2.2 Land Administration 5
2.2.1 Customary land 6
2.2.2 State Land 7
2.2.3 The 1995 land Act 7
2.3  Investment - Land Acquisitions 9
2.3.1. Who are the investors? 10
2.3.2 Why is demand on customary land high? 11
2.3.3. What are the impacts of demand on Customary Land? 13
3. Research Question 17
3.1 Objectives 17
3.2 Hypotheses 18
4. Sub Questions 18
4.1 Research Method 19
4.2 Study Design 20
5. Data Analysis 26
6. Dissertation Structure 27
7. Work Schedule 28
8. Limitations 28
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