福彩3d和值走势图带连线专业版

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美國essay寫作:體育用藥的現狀和歷史 - 反興奮劑的困難

論文編號:lw201901231432163239 所屬欄目:essay寫作 發布日期:2019年01月23日 論文作者:論文網
Introduction介紹
興奮劑已成為競技體育的主要焦點之一,也已成為競技體育發展進程的障礙。本文將研究體育用藥的現狀和歷史。從藥物使用的歷史和現狀來看,本文將分析反興奮劑的困難。
Doping has become one of the main focuses in competitive sports and it has become the obstacle in the development progress of competitive sports. This essay is going to study the current situation and history of drug use in sports. From the history and current situation of drug use, this essay will analyze the difficulties in anti-doping.
據史料記載,從公元前300年開始,古代奧運會運動員飲用白蘭地,混合飲料酒或食用菌,以獲得額外的“力量”,從而贏得比賽。一些運動員甚至將生物堿與酒精混合使其令人興奮。但是,在那個時候,這并不是法律所禁止的。在現代,為了贏得比賽,采取各種飲料和補品的做法仍然很受歡迎。在19世紀,有很多關于游戲玩家興奮劑的記錄,其中大部分都發生在1896年第一屆現代奧林匹克運動會之前。1865年,在阿姆斯特丹舉行的游泳比賽中,首次報道了運動員服用興奮劑的情況。那時,歐洲人經常舉辦一場自行車比賽,比賽時間為144小時,共計6天。這場比賽耗費精力。據報道,在六天內,比利時球員吃了一種浸泡在特殊藥物中的糖。否則,為了與他們抗衡,法國運動員服用咖啡因片。同時,英國運動員吸入純氧,服用士的寧,海洛因和可卡因。簡而言之,這些運動員采取一切手段贏得勝利。這些自行車運動員的秘密很快就傳遍了整個體育界。在19世紀末,一些拳擊運動員通常在比賽前喝一杯,服用士的寧或其他藥物。According to historical records, from the 300 BC, athletes of the ancient Olympic Games have drunken brandy, mixed drink wine, or edible mushrooms, to gain additional “power” so as to win the competition. Some athletes even mixed alkaloids with alcohol to make them exciting. However, at that time, this was not forbidden by law. In modern times, in order to win in games the practice of taking all kinds of drinks and supplements is still popular. In the 19th century, there are many records about game players doping and most of these had occurred before the first modern Olympic Games held in 1896. In 1865, in a swimming competition held in Amsterdam, the first report about athletes taking doping was reported. At that time, Europeans often held a kind of bicycle competition which would last for 144 hours, 6 days in total. This competition is energy consuming. It was reported that during the six days the Belgian players ate a kind of sugar which had been soaked in a special drug. Otherwise, in order to contend with them French athletes took caffeine tablets. While, British athletes inhaled pure oxygen and took strychnine, heroin and cocaine. In short, these athletes took all means to win. The secret of these bike athletes soon spread to the whole sports world. At the end of the 19th century, some boxing athletes usually had a drink before the game and took strychnine or other drugs.
The first death in sports related to athletes taking doping occurred in 1886. It was a British cyclist. He died of an overdose of drugs. The doping crisis affected the modern Olympic Games for the first time was happened in the 1904 Olympic Games in st. Louis. The American marathon runner Thomas Hicks took a large dose of strychnine mixed with egg white during the competition which gave rise to his falling down after crossing the finish line. In 1908 London Olympic Games, Italian marathon runner Dolan. Peter ran to the end point and collapsed to the ground because of taking strychnine. In the early days of the modern Olympic Games, the drugs taken are mostly the mixture of strychnine and alcohol. Till the second world war, Benzedrine replaced strychnine and became the option of athletes doping. Actually in the 1940s, not only the athletes taking Benzedrine, some countries in order to win in the war, gave soldiers Benzedrine so as to fight against their enemies . Even students, the night shift workers, truck drivers took it to cope with their sleepiness and tiredness. In the 1950s, the number of athletes taking doping increased sharply. In 1952, the winter Olympic Games was held in Oslo, Norway. It is the first time about Benzedrine doping incidents. Several speed skating athletes who had taken Benzedrine collapsed in the preliminaries.
In the history of Olympic Games, the famous “Benzedrine tragedy” finally happened. In the 1960 Rome Olympics, Danish cyclist, DE Jason died in road cycling race. It was reported that Jason had taking mixture of alcohol and Benzedrine before the competition. Jason’s death made international Olympic committee (IOC) determined to carry out the anti-doping movement. In 1961, the IOC Medical
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