1 Origins of the conception1概念的起源形式遵循功能的原則與20世紀的現代主義建筑和工業設計有關。其基本理論主要基于建筑物和建筑的形狀是否基于前景功能和目的。
The principle of form follows function is connected with modernist architecture and industrial design which related to 20th century. The basic theory of this is mainly based on whether the shape of a building and architecture is based on the prospect function and purpose.
1.1Historical Background 1.1歷史背景
這個公式形式跟隨函數（最初版本是：形式永遠跟隨函數）由美國建筑師路易斯沙利文創建和聲明。雖然這句話的作者經常被錯誤地認為是另一位美國雕塑家 - 哈拉蒂奧格里諾，他的思想在后來的功能主義方法之前，并在20世紀30年代再次被發現。人們總是錯誤地認為他是作者，因為他發表了一系列關于形式和功能的文章。
美國建筑師路易斯·沙利文（Louis Sullivan）是第一個提出形式短語的人應該在他的文章中遵循功能 - “藝術上考慮的高大辦公樓”于1896年出版。他形容如下：
This formula form follow function(originally version is: form ever follow function) is created and declared by Louis Sullivan, an American architect. Though the authorship of this phrase is often wrongly believed as another American sculptor-Haratio Greenough, whose thought is before the later functionalist approach and were discovered again in 1930s. People always wrongly regard him as the authorship because he published a series of essays about form and function.
Louis Sullivan, the American architect, is the person who first put forward the phrase of form should follow function in his essay — “tall office building artistically considered” which is published in 1896. He described it like that:
It is the pervading law of all things organic and inorganic, of all things physical and metaphysical, of all things human and all things superhuman, of all true manifestations of the head, of the heart, of the soul, that the life is recognizable in its expression, that form ever follows function. This is the law.
After that, in a official occasion, the famous phrase was said by this Chicago constructs-Louis Sullivan in 1907 when he summarized the principle of design. In the theory of Sullivan, function did not simply indicate utility or practical use. On the contrary, it represents life power or life force. It more related to a kind of essential vitalize. Specifically, the essence of a thing in nature life equals to its life force, vice versa the final life force influence the exterior form. The essence of object gradually mold the key appearance of things. He apply this formula into skyscraper design, the essential aspect and outward appearance of a skyscraper seems to be closely related to grand and tall. However, in the approach of modern utilitarian, grandness and tallness sometimes means a skyscraper can not be functional.
1.2 The way to interpret “Form Follows Function”
There exists two main ways to express this phrase “form follows function”
First one is, descriptive: beauty arises from fashion purity.
Second one is, prescriptive: aesthetic conception plays less significant role than functional conception
The descriptive interpretation prefers simplicity to complexity. Generally speaking, it defines that nature and purity of function is the most significant resource of beauty, not ornamentation. This view is fully based on belief that form follows function.
However, the truth is not like that, compared with aesthetic elements, functional can be more objective and practical when used in design.In other words, a functional creation process leads to designs are timeless and forever, at the same time, it also may be regarded as simple and boring.
The prescriptive interpretation pays much attention to functionality than other design elements, such as usability, ergonomics and aesthetics.
This interpretation can be regarded as a approach for designers to rethinks what should be deleted from design. What aspect of design didn’t work into effect. whether the form is only defined and shaped by the really function.
2 Discussion on the functionality of ornamentation
An allegorical essay— “Ornament and Crime” was cited by an influential Austrian architect Adolf Loos in 1908, because of a phenomena that Vienna Secession adopted overwhel