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Essay里文中夾注與reference的寫法(APA格式)

論文編號:lw201803091743357436 所屬欄目:essay寫作 發布日期:2018年03月09日 論文作者:未知

      如何寫essay,相信留學生們都比較了解,不過如果遇到字數較多的essay,通常還會要求寫reference,甚至有關于reference數目的規定。Essay中reference的寫法有兩類:文中夾注和論文末尾,同學們可以根據實際情況靈活選擇。今天我們主要講如何采用APA格式寫作規范來書寫reference。考慮到同學們基礎不同,小編應用了大量的實例進行分析,相信能給大家帶來幫助。

      1. Books 著作

      1) Book with one author (一位作者的著作)

      Reference citation in text (文中夾注)

      Rosenthal (1987) has argued that …or … this is significant (Rosenthal, 1987).

      If the author’s name is not in the text, include it in the parentheses.

      J. Sandemose has discussed this in his biography (2004, pp.522-552).

      It is recommended to include the page number (or chapter) in addition to the year when paraphrasing or referring to a passage. This is optional.

      In bibliography (參考文獻)

      Rosenthal, R. (1987). Meta-analytic procedures for social research. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

      Sandemose, J. (2004). Aksel Sandemose: A biography. Oslo: Aschehoug.


     2) Book with two to seven authors(2到7位作者的著作)

      Reference citation in text (文中夾注)

      Beck and Sales (2001 ) here establish a new theory.

      or A new theory is established here (Beck & Sales, 2001).

      In all subsequent citations to books with two authors, repeat both names and year.

      This is also analysed in terms of theories of aesthetics (Carlsen,Nielsen, & Rasmussen, 2001).

      With 3-5 authors, write all names in the first citation. In subsequent citations write only the first author’s surname followed by et al. (et al. = “and others”.) With 6 or more authors,cite only the first author’s surname followed by et al. in allcitations. The year is included in all citations, e.g.(Carlsen et al., 2001).

      In bibliography (參考文獻)

      Beck, C. A. J., & Sales, B. D. (2001). Family mediation:Facts, myths, and future prospects. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

      Carlsen, M. S., Nielsen, K. G., & Rasmussen, K. S. (2001). Deleuze’s philosophy. Copenhagen: Museum Tusculanum.

      All authors’ names (up to 7) are written in the bibliography.

      (八位作者以上的情況比較少見,有的話建議大家盡量避開~)

      3) Chapter in book with editor(選集中的章節)

      Reference citation in text (文中夾注)

      There are, as Sleeter (1995) has proven, large variations.

      The in-text citation refers to the author of the chapter.

      In bibliography (參考文獻)

      Sleeter, C. E. (1995). Radical structuralist perspectives and learning disabilities. In T. M. Skrtic (Ed.), Disability and democracy:Reconstructing(special) education for postmodernity (pp. 153-165). New York : Teachers College.

      Chapter author and chapter title are written first, then the editor(s),book title (in italics), and chapter page numbers (in parentheses).The reference to the book begins with “In”.

     2. Articles論文

     1) Article with one author(一位作者的論文)

      Reference citation in text (文中夾注)

      From printed journal without DOI (Digital Object Identifier):

      沒有數字對象標識符的出版期刊

      According to Friscolanti, we are entering “a new age of hybrid tanks… and biogenerators that transform trash into power” (2009, p. 35).

      Write … in a quote if w

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